Medications: The first and foremost step to treat pain is by drug therapy that includes:
- NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), including ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin
- Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
- Antidepressants, which can improve sleep and alleviate pain
- Anti-seizure medications, which can be effective in treating pain related to nerve damage or injury
- Steroids, like dexamethasone and prednisone, to alleviate inflammation and pain
- Muscle relaxants in cases of muscle spasms
Therapy: Various physical therapies are aimed to give mental and physical relief to the patients of pain. It includes:
- Physical therapy includes special exercises, stretching of body or massage that slowly builds the tolerance and reduces pain.
- Cognitive-behavioural therapy is about understanding the pain, its location and what can be done to get relief.
TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) therapy mainly make use of electrical stimulation to send signal to the brain that reduces pain.
Bioelectric therapy blocks the pain signals to brain.
Injections: Pain that becomes severe and chronic can be managed by injecting medication directly in to the location of pain. The various types of injections include:
- Epidural Steroid Injection is given near the injured area of spine by any of the following three techniques:
- Interlaminar Epidural Injections
- Transforaminal Epidural Injections
- Caudal Epidural Injections
- Facet Joint Injection is given in the inflamed facet joints that are causing severe neck and back pain.
- Medial Branch Nerve Block Injection is used to diagnose and treat facet joints pain.
- Sacroiliac (SI) joint injection is given in the sacroiliac joint to relieve pain.
Other pain management options
- Relaxation techniques
- Visual imagery of a peaceful scene etc.
- Heat and cold therapy
- Manipulation and massage